Sensory Systems – Hearing and Balance

Sound waves with high frequency are heard as high pitch

Sound waves with high amplitude are heard as high volume

External Ear – Elastic cartilage covered in skin. Catches and funnels sound waves

Sound waves cause the ear drum to vibrate which is passed into tiny bones. Sound waves are amplified and passed through a complex structure becoming electric signals which are delivered to the brain.

Semi circular canals – A series of circular fluid filled tubes in the inner ear. Detects rotational movement.

Respiratory System

Breathing delivers oxygen to our body and extracts carbon dioxide produced by the body.

The Upper Respiratory Tract – Nose and Nasal Cavity, Pharynx, Larynx.

Lower Respiratory Tract –  Larynx, Trachea, Bronchi/ Bronchioles, Alveoli.

Cilia – Used in the nose is used for the filtration of air.

Pharynx -Muscular tube that lies behind the nose and mouth.

Larynx – Also known as the voice box or Adams apple.

Trachea – Made of c shaped rings, connects the Pharynx to the Bronchi

Bronchi/ Bronchioles – dividing tubes inside the lungs, increases the surface area of the lungs

Alveoli – Small grape like structures where the gas exchange happens inside the lungs

Heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body. Heart pumps blood to the lungs. The lungs remove the waste gas carbon dioxide and replaces it with oxygen. Oxygenated blood is pumped back to the heart and then pumped around the body

The blood vessels in the lungs border the Alveoli. The gas exchange process happens through this wall.



The SHELL Model

SHELL – a model of human factors that clarifies the scope of aviation human factors.

Software – interactions with paperwork, rules/procedures or checklists

Hardware – How easy is your equipment to use

Environment – Physical environment around you. How are your surroundings effecting your concentration

Liveware – The living component – Yourself

Liveware – Teamwork, other members of staff and your interaction between them.


Nearly 70 Percent of all the sensory receptors in your body are in the eyes.

The frequency of a light wave determines its hue. High frequency looks blue while low frequency looks red

The amplitude of a light wave determines its brightness.

Light reflected off an object passes through the eye’s cornea, is then focused through the lens onto the Retina. This information is carried to the brain via the optic nerve which is used to create an image.

Cones detect fine details and colour.

Rods detect general shape and light levels. Used for our peripheral vision